Updated UK indicators

  • Numbers in low income:
    • first and second graphs (over time): the number of people in low-income households in 2008/09 was substantially higher than a few years previously. This rise occurred at all thresholds of low income.
    • third graph (fixed low-income threshold): the number of people below a fixed 1996/97 low-income threshold is actually higher than a few years ago, after having previously halved in the late 1990s and early 2000s.
  • Location of low income:
    • first graph (by region): the proportion of people in low-income households is lower than a decade ago in all the regions except for the West Midlands. London now has a much higher proportion than any other region.
  • The impact of housing costs:
    • first graph (over time): the proportion of people in in low-income households on a ‘before deducting housing costs’ measure has followed a similar pattern over time to that on an ‘after deducting housing costs’ measure.
    • second graph (by region): the proportion of people in low income in Southern England (particularly London) is much higher on an ‘after deducting housing costs’ measure than on a ‘before deducting housing costs’ measure.
    • third graph (housing costs): housing costs for households with below-average incomes are much higher in London and much lower in Northern Ireland.
  • Low income by age group:
    • first graph (over time – rates): the proportion of pensioners who live in low-income households is much lower than a decade ago, the proportion for children is a bit lower, and the proportion for working-age adults without dependent children is a bit higher.
    • second graph (over time – numbers): the only group where the number of low-income people is higher than a decade ago is working-age adults without dependent children.
    • third graph (shares): a third of all people in low-income households are working-age adults without dependent children.
    • fourth graph (by age): the heightened risk that children face of living in a low-income household does not end at the formal end of childhood but continues through to the age of 21.
  • Low income by family type:
    • first graph (by family type): a half of all people in lone parent families are in low income. This is more than twice the rate for couples with children.
    • second graph (depth of low income): three-quarters of the people with very low incomes are either working-age adults without children or in couples with children. Relatively few are either pensioners or in lone parent families.
  • Low income and ethnicity
    • first graph (over time): around two-fifths of people from ethnic minorities live in low-income households, twice the rate for White people.
    • second graph (by ethnic group): whilst rates have been falling for all ethnic groups, more than half of people from Bangladeshi and Pakistani ethnic backgrounds still live in low-income households.
    • third graph (by age): for all ages, people from ethnic minorities are, on average, much more likely to live in low-income households than White British people.
    • fourth graph (by family work status): for all work statuses, people from ethnic minorities are, on average, more likely to live in low-income households than White British people.  The gap is biggest for part-working families.
    • fifth graph (working families): among those in working families, around 65% of Bangladeshis, 50% of Pakistanis and 30% of Black Africans are in low income.
    • sixth graph (by geography – risks): unlike ethnic minorities, the proportion of White British people who live in low-income households is similar across the UK.
    • seventh graph (by geography – shares): more than half of people living in low-income households in London are from ethnic minorities.
  • Low income by gender
    • first and second graphs (over time): women are a bit – but only a bit – more likely to live in low-income households than men and the gap has narrowed considerably in recent years.
    • third graph (by family type): single female pensioners and female lone parents are both more likely to be in low-income households than their male equivalents, but there is no difference for working-age singles without children.
    • fourth graph (shares by family type): in terms of family type, the composition of those in low income is much more varied for women than for men.
    • fifth graph (over time by family type): the two groups where women dominate – single pensioners and lone parents – are precisely the groups where the proportion who are in low income has been fallen.
    • sixth graph (by age): men aged 60 to 64 are more likely to be in low income than men in any other age group between 25 and 80.
  • Income inequalities
    • first graph (changes in real income – percentages): unlike the rest of the population, the poorest tenth have not seen a rise in their average incomes over the last decade.
    • second graph (changes in real income – shares): four-fifths of the total increase in incomes over the last decade has gone to those with above-average incomes and two-fifths has gone to those in the richest tenth.
    • third graph (total income – over time): the richest tenth now have 31% of total income, noticeably more than a decade ago. The poorest tenth have just over 1% of the total income.
    • fourth graph (total income – shares): the income of the richest tenth is more than the income of all those on below-average incomes (i.e. the bottom five tenths) combined.
    • fifth graph (by region): Inner London is deeply divided – it has by far the highest proportion of people on a low income but also a high proportion of people on a high income.
    • sixth graph (composition by income level): within the bottom three income deciles, the proportion who are pensioners rises as income rises whilst the proportion who are in workless working-age families falls as income rises.
    • seventh graph (Gini coefficient): the gini coefficient measure of overall income inequality in the UK is now higher than at any previous time in the last thirty years.
  • In receipt of tax credits:
    • third graph (by income group): only a quarter of tax credit recipients are no longer in low income because of the tax credit monies received.
  • Children in low-income households:
    • first graph (over time – numbers): the number of children in low-income households is still well above the Government’s target for 2004/05. Numbers have risen since 2004/05.
    • second graph (over time – proportions): children remain more likely than adults to live in low income households.
    • third graph (by family type): a half of all people in lone parent families are in low income. This is more than twice the rate for couples with children.
    • fourth graph (by region): inner London has a much higher proportion of children in low-income households than any other region.
    • fifth graph (by work status – risks): unless all adults in the family are working (and at least one of them full time), the risks of a child being in low income are substantial.
    • sixth graph (by work status – numbers): among children in low income, the number in working families has risen sharply in the last few years whilst the number in workless ones has been falling since the mid-1990s.
    • seventh graph (by work status – shares): more than half of the children in low income households live in families where at least one of the adults is in paid work.
  • Children in receipt of tax credits:
    • first graph (over time): tax credits now take around 1 million children in working families out of low income – but a million more children need this support than a decade ago.
    • second graph (by group): only a quarter of the children in working families in receipt of tax credits are no longer in low income because of the tax credit monies received.
    • third graph (by family type): tax credits are more effective in taking children in lone parent families out of low income than they are for those in couple families.
  • Young adults in low-income households:
    • first graph (over time): a fifth of all boys eligible for free school meals do not obtain 5 or more GCSEs.
    • second graph (by family work status): a fifth of all White British pupils eligible for free school meals do not obtain 5 or more GCSEs, a much higher proportion than that any for other ethnic group.
  • Working-age adults in low income:
    • first graph (over time): at around a fifth in 2008/09, the proportion of working-age adults who are in low-income households is now slightly higher than at any time since the mid-1990s.
    • second graph (by region): Inner London has a much higher proportion of working-age adults who are in low-income households than any other region.
  • Low income by work status:
    • first graph (over time – proportions): an adult’s risk of low income varies greatly depending on how much paid work the family does. Over the last decade, these risks have increased for working families, both ‘all-working’ and ‘part-working’.
    • second graph (over time – numbers): among working-age adults in low income, the number in working families has been rising and now exceeds the number in workless ones.
    • third graph (by family type): most of the rise in working families in low income has been among those without dependent children.
    • fourth graph (shares): among working-age adults in low income, more than half now have someone in their family who is in paid work.
  • Low income and disability:
    • first graph (over time): disabled adults are twice as likely to live in low-income households as non-disabled adults, and this has been the case throughout the last decade.
    • second graph (by family work status): disabled adults in workless families are actually somewhat less likely to be in low income than their non-disabled counterparts.
    • third graph (by family type): for all family types, a disabled adult’s risk of being in low income is much greater than that for a non-disabled adult.
  • Composition of working-age low income:
    • first graph (by family type): of the 1.7 million adults aged 16 to 24 in low-income households, 1.1 million are single adults without children.
    • second graph (lone parents): four-fifths of lone parents in low-income households are aged 25 or older.
    • third graph (by family type and work status): of the 1.6 million adults aged 34 to 42 in low-income households, 1 million are in families where someone is working and most of these are couples with children.
    • fourth graph (by family work and disability status): of the 1.2 million adults aged 52 to 60 in low-income households, 600,000 have a disabled adult in the family and most of these are workless.
  • Older people in low income:
    • first graph (over time): the proportion of single pensioners who are in low-income households has halved over the last decade, with smaller falls for pensioner couples.
    • second graph (by family type): pensioners are now less likely to be living in low-income households than non-pensioners.
    • third graph (by age): single female pensioners are more likely to be in low income than either single male pensioners or pensioner couples.
    • fourth graph (shares): around half of low-income pensioners are in couples and the other half are single pensioners.
    • fifth graph (by depth): Unlike working-age adults, relatively few low-income pensioners have a very low income.
    • sixth graph (by region): inner London has a much higher proportion of pensioners who are in low-income than any other region.
    • seventh graph (before deducting housing costs): after deducting housing costs, pensioners are less likely to be in low income than non-pensioners. Before deducting housing costs, however, pensioners are more likely to be in low income than non-pensioners.
  • Polarisation by housing tenure:
    • first graph (over time – by income): half of all people in social housing are in low income compared to one in seven owner occupiers. Both risks are similar to a decade ago.