Updated UK indicators

  • Low birthweight babies:
    • first graph (over time): babies born to parents from manual social backgrounds are now only a bit more likely to have a low birthweight than those born to parents from non-manual social backgrounds.
    • fourth graph (link with infant deaths – rates): there is a very strong relationship between low birthweight and the subsequent likelihood of infant death.
    • fifth graph (link with infant deaths – shares): two-thirds of all infant deaths are among those borne of low birthweight.
  • Infant deaths:
    • first graph (over time): although down by a fifth on a decade ago, infant deaths are still 35% more common among those from manual backgrounds than among those from non-manual backgrounds.
  • Impact of qualifications on work:
    • first graph (lack of work): the lower a young adult’s qualifications, the more likely they are to be lacking but wanting paid work. A quarter of those aged 25 to 29 with low or no qualifications lack but want work.
    • second graph (low pay): the lower a young adult’s qualifications, the more likely they are to be low paid. Half of all employees aged 25 to 29 with low or no qualifications are low paid.
  • Not in education, employment or training:
    • first graph (over time): one in ten 16- to 18-year-olds is not in education, employment or training, similar to a decade ago.
    • second graph (by region): the proportion of 16- to 18-year-olds who are not in education, employment or training is higher in the North East of England and in Scotland than elsewhere.
  • Young adult unemployment:
    • first and second graphs (over time): at 20%, the unemployment rate for 16- to 24-year-olds has been rising since 2004 and is now higher than the previous peak in the early 1990s. It is more than three times the rate for older workers.
    • third graph (by gender): the unemployment rate is higher for young men than for young women.
    • fourth graph (by region): the unemployment rate for 16- to 24-year-olds is highest in London.
  • Not in education, employment or training:
    • fourth graph (rates by industry): in wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants, around three-quarters of all employees aged 16 to 24 are paid less than £7 per hour.
    • fifth graph (shares by industry): half of all adults aged 16 to 24 earning less than £7 per hour work in wholesale, retail, hotels or restaurants.
  • Wanting paid work:
    • first and second graphs (over time): the number of people who lack, but want, paid work has been rising since 2005, not just during the current recession.
    • third graph (by region): the proportion of the working-age population lacking who lack, but want, paid work is highest in the North East of England.
    • fourth graph (by age and sex): for women of all ages, and for older men, those who are economically inactive but wanting paid work substantially outnumber the officially unemployed.
    • fifth graph (by reason): around half of those who lack, but want, paid work are not officially unemployed.
  • Work and disability:
    • first graph (over time): 40% of those with a work-limiting disability are working. A further 25% lack, but want, paid work.
    • fifth graph (by qualification): at every level of qualification, the proportion of people with a work-limiting disability who lack, but want, paid work is much greater than for those without a disability.
    • sixth graph (by region): the proportion of people who both have a work-limiting disability and lack, but want, paid work is noticeably higher in the North East than elsewhere.
  • Work and ethnicity:
    • first graph (over time): one in seven adults aged 25 to retirement from ethnic minorities are not working but want to, lower than a decade ago but still much higher than that for White people.
    • second graph (by group): around a third of Bangladeshis and Pakistanis are both not in paid work and say that they do not want paid work, a much higher proportion than that for any other ethnic group.
  • Blue collar jobs:
    • fourth graph (by gender): one in three full-time male workers are in production industries, compared to around one in ten full-time female workers and part-time workers.
    • fifth graph (by industry): manufacturing, construction and other production industries are the areas which are dominated by full-time male workers.
  • Low pay by industry:
    • first graph (risks): two-third of employees in hotels & restaurants – and half of those in retail & wholesale – earn less than £7 per hour. Three-fifths of them are women.
    • second graph (shares): two-fifths of all low-paid employees work in the hotel, restaurant, retail and wholesale sectors. A further quarter work in the public sector.
    • third graph (by age group): much of the low pay in the hotels & restaurants and retail & wholesale sectors is in the younger age groups. By contrast, low pay in the public sector is spread throughout the age range.
  • Low pay and disability:
    • first graph (by gender and full-/part-time): for both full-time and part-time work, the proportion of employees with a work-limiting disability who are low paid is higher than that for employees without a work-limiting disability.
    • second graph (by qualifications): at all levels of qualification, the proportion of people with a work-limiting disability who are low paid is somewhat greater than for those without a disability.
  • Low pay and ethnicity:
    • first graph (by ethnic group): almost half of all Bangladeshi and Pakistani employees earn less than £7 per hour.
  • Insecure at work:
    • third graph (temporary/part-time): most part-time employees do not want a full-time job – but only a quarter of temporary employees do not want a permanent job.
    • fourth graph (temporary contracts): although rising in recent years, the number of people in temporary contracts is still somewhat lower than a decade ago.
    • fifth graph (union membership): only one in nine workers earning less than £7 an hour belong to a trade union, a much smaller proportion than for those with higher hourly earnings.
  • Access to training:
    • first graph (over time): throughout the last decade, people with no qualifications have been around three times less likely to receive job-related training than those with some qualifications.
    • second graph (by level of qualification): the lower a person’s level of educational qualifications, the less likely they are to receive job-related training.
    • third graph (by occupation): access to training differs significantly by occupation, being least in elementary (routine) occupations, plant & machine operatives and skilled trades.
    • fourth graph (by industry): the best access to training is in the public sector.
  • Working-age adults without qualifications:
    • first graph (over time): the proportion of the working-age population without any educational qualifications has fallen by two-fifths over the last decade.
    • second graph (by age and gender): the proportion of people in their twenties without any educational qualifications is much smaller than the proportion for people aged 40 and over but similar to the proportion for people in their thirties.
    • third graph (by region): the proportion of the working-age population without any educational qualifications is much higher in Northern Ireland than in the rest of the UK.
  • Mental health:
    • first and second graphs (over time): the proportion of working-age people who are deemed to be at a high risk of developing a mental illness is similar to a decade ago. Women are more at risk than men.
    • third graph (by income): adults in the poorest fifth are much more likely to be at risk of developing a mental illness than those on average incomes.
    • fourth graph (by social class): people from manual backgrounds are at slightly higher risk of developing a mental illness than those from non-manual backgrounds.
    • fifth graph (by region): the risk of mental illness is similar across most of the regions in England.
  • Obesity:
    • first and second graphs (over time): almost a quarter of working-age people are now obese. This is a much higher proportion than in the early 1990s.
    • third graph (by income): there no obvious relationship between obesity and income. The groups with the lowest levels of obesity are poor men and rich women.
    • fourth graph (by social class): there is no obvious relationship between obesity and social class.
    • fifth graph (by region): in England, the proportion of working-age adults who are obese is lowest in London.
  • Polarisation by housing tenure:
    • second graph (over time – work): in two-thirds of households in social housing, the head of household is not in paid work. Although this has been the case throughout the last decade, it was only a half at the start of the 1980s.
    • third graph (by age group): half of heads of households aged between 25 and 54 in social rented housing are not in paid work compared to just one in fifteen of those in owner-occupation.
    • fourth graph (by region): three-quarters of heads of households in social housing in Northern Ireland are not in work, more than in any other part of the UK.
  • Homelessness:
    • first graph (over time): the number of newly homeless households has fallen by two-thirds since 2003.
    • second graph (by region): although most prevalent in the West Midlands and in London, homelessness is to be found throughout the country.
    • third graph (by reason): the most common reason for becoming homeless is loss of accommodation provided by relatives or friends.
    • fourth graph (by ethnic group): a quarter of those accepted as homeless and in priority need by English local authorities are from ethnic minorities.
    • seventh graph (in temporary accommodation – by length): a third of households leaving temporary accommodation in 2010 had stayed there for a year or more.