Numbers in low pay
Graphs on this page:
- Low pay is somewhat more prevalent in the most rural districts. In terms of where people live, 19% of employees in ‘very rural’ districts were paid less than £7 per hour in 2010 compared to 16-17% in other types of district. In terms of place of work, 22% of employees in ‘very rural’ districts were paid less than £7 per hour in 2009 compared to around 20% in other rural districts and 16% in urban districts.
- 1.4 million employees living in rural districts were paid less than £7 per hour in 2010. This is two-fifths of all those paid less than £7 per hour.
- As in urban districts, part-time workers in rural districts – both men and women – are much more likely to be earning less than £7 per hour than full-time workers: around half were paid less than £7 per hour in 2009 compared to 25% of full-time women and 15% of full-time men.
- Part-time men are, if anything, somewhat more likely to be low paid that part-time women.
- Around half of those paid less than £7 per hour in rural districts are part-time workers, mainly women.
- The rural/urban ratios for low pay are very different from those for lacking but wanting work. See the indicator on lacking, but wanting, paid work.
- See the UK indicators on trends in low pay and the location of low pay.
Rural/urban ratios (urban = 10)
On most poverty and social exclusion indicators, rural areas have ‘better scores’ than urban areas. The purpose of the table below is to differentiate between those subjects where rural areas are ‘a bit better’ and those where rural areas are ‘a lot better’. It does so by presenting the rural statistics for the indicator as a proportion of the urban statistics. So, for example, a rural ‘score’ of 6 in the table below means that the rural statistic is around 60% of its urban equivalent.
|Type of district||Overall||Female part-time||Male part-time||Female full-time||Male full-time|
|'Very rural' districts||11||10||10||12||11|
|'Mostly rural' districts||10||9||10||12||10|
|'Part rural' districts||10||9||9||11||10|
By place of work
|Type of district||Overall|
|'Very rural' districts||13|
|'Mostly rural' districts||12|
|'Part rural' districts||11|
Definitions and data sources
For each type of local authority district, the first two graphs show the proportion of employees paid less than £7 per hour in 2009. The data in the first graph is by residency (i.e. where people live) and the data in the second graph is by place of work. £7 per hour is roughly two-thirds of the Great Britain median hourly earnings and is commonly used as a threshold when analysing low pay.
The third graph shows the distribution of employees paid less than £7 per hour by type of district. Note that the figures are similar by residency and by place of work.
For each type of local authority district, the fourth graph shows the proportion of employees paid less than £7 per hour in 2009 for each combination of gender and full-/part-time, where (in the case of an individual having multiple jobs), the analysis is for main job of the individual.
For each type of local authority district, the fifth graph shows the share of employees paid less than £7 per hour in 2009 by gender and full-/part-time.
The data in the fourth and fifth graphs is by residency and the dataset does not allow an equivalent analysis by place of work.
Level of the data
Lower tier local authorities (districts), as classified by the DEFRA 2009 classification system. Both the DEFRA classification rules and their results by local authority can be found on the page on rural/urban classification systems.
First, second and third graphs: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE). Note that, because of limitations in the published data, it is not possible to provide from this source any rural/urban estimates of low pay by gender, age or any other characteristic.
Fourth and fifth graphs: the Annual Population Survey (APS), which is effectively the Labour Force Survey with selected booster samples to compensate for small sample sizes in some authorities. Note that the low pay data from the APS is generally considered to be a bit more unreliable than that from ASHE, and somewhat overestimates the numbers, but it provides much more flexibility in what can be analysed.
Graphs 1 and 3
|Type of district||Rate||Numbers|
|'Very rural' districts||19%||400,000|
|'Mostly rural' districts||17%||500,000|
|'Part rural' districts||16%||500,000|
|Type of district||Rate|
|'Very rural' districts||22%|
|'Mostly rural' districts||20%|
|'Part rural' districts||19%|
Graphs 4 and 5
|Type of district||Female part-time||Male part-time||Female full-time||Male full-time|
|'Very rural' districts||44%||150,000||58%||50,000||24%||90,000||15%||100,000|
|'Mostly rural' districts||42%||190,000||58%||60,000||24%||140,000||15%||140,000|
|'Part rural' districts||42%||190,000||52%||40,000||21%||120,000||14%||140,000|